Turkey has been called the cradle of civilization. Catalhoyuk is a neolithic city and the first town in the world which dates back to 6,500 BC. Turkey is a country of rich historical and cultural heritage. It has experienced many invasions when different cultures and civilizations have left traces (Hattis, Hittitess, Phrygians, Urartians, Lycians, Lydians, Ionians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans, Byzantines, Seljuks, and Ottomans), therefore we can say it is the country of diversity.
Home to many different fascinating civilizations, Turkey has an old heritage, still to be discovered. Its rich history is rather part of the present, with temples, ancient theatres, churches, mosques, tombs, statues of gods, palaces and fortresses, and of course the many detailed and fascinating museums which bring the past to life.
The Hitties were the first great civilization on this territory. Then came the Persians, and after that there was a period of the Romans who brought peace and prosperity to this area, threatened later by Islamic armies. The Ottoman Empire started expanding, followed soon by its decline by 1585.
A young soldier and a great visionary, Mustafa Kemal, succeeded in his tempting to liberate the country of all the foreign invaders, thus founded the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. It was the period of stability and remarkable economic growth, development and modernization. By the time he died in 1938, a constitution had been adopted. Islam ceased to be the official state religion, Constantinople became Istanbul and women obtained the right to vote.
In the 1990s Turkey suffered from a shaky economy and a destructive struggle with the Kurds.
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Turkey is is an alluring destination, with magnificent scenery of picturesque coves and rocky headlands, turquoise waters, golden beaches and pine forests. Many harbours, beautiful resorts such as Antalya, Fethiye, Kas, Marmaris, Hisaronu... and sunshine make it more enchanting.
Turkish cuisine cannot be distinguished with the basic meal but it stands out for its variety, ways of preparing and preserving food, techniques, eating manners, equipment and utensils required for preparation.
Weather is conditioned by variety of climates in Turkey due to diverse nature of the landscape. Each region with different conditions, from the Mediterranean climate to the Continental one, and then the temperate climate of the Black Sea region.
The Turkish culture is rather diverse, influenced by the Ottoman Empire, European and Islamic traditions and is reflected in different aspects of life. Architecture was quite important with social and religious complex built around the mosques